References: Articles

Antibiotic Resistance in Africa - Discerning the enemy and plotting defense by Iruka N. Okeke and Anibal Sosa.

The PAHO Clinical Guide for the Treatment of Infectious Diseases (published in Spanish) offers a model for countries to adapt and implement among prescribers. It offers a comprehensive approach in the choice of antimicrobial agents for the empirical treatment of infectious diseases in the community and hospital settings. This guide, for practical use, has a plain text for reference.(31/Dec/2002).

Perspectives in Health Magazine, PAHO, Antibiotics: Are We Killing the Cures? (English), Antibióticos: ¿Estamas acabando con los remedios? (Español), by A. Spatuzza, 7(1), 2002.

WHO Global Strategy for Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance, WHO, 2001. Available in English, Spanish or Russian. The Executive Summary is also available in French.

FDA Consumer reports that antibiotic resistance is becoming a public-health nightmare, 2002.

Scientific American article on antibiotic resistance: The challenge of Antibiotic Resistance, SB Levy, 1998.

The study entitled “Changes in the use of antimicrobials and the effects on productivity of swine farms in Denmark” identifies positive results from the enactment of policies in Denmark that regulate antimicrobial use in agriculture. Trends showed a decrease in antimicrobial consumption per kilogram of pig produced from 1992-2008 along with an improvement in overall swine productivity. These findings provide the best evidence supporting a ban on the use of antimicrobial growth promoters.

Andrew Jack's article "Public Health: Raised Resistance" in the Financial Times reports on how and why the cavalier use of medicines has left mankind struggling to contain diseases once thought to be on the verge of elimination.

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