CITATION: Low DE, de Azavedo J, McGeer A. 1995. Impact of penicillin-resistant pneumococci on clinical practice. APUA Newsletter 13(3): 1-4.


Newsletter table of contents

 

Print this Page

Email this Page


Impact of penicillin-resistant pneumococci on clinical practice
Donald E Low, Joyce de Azavedo, Allison McGeer
Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai and Princess Margaret Hospitals and the Canadian Bacterial Diseases Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common bacterial pathogen causing mucosal infections, such as otitis media, sinusitis and pneumonia and invasive disease, such as bacteremia and meningitis. As a result of the dramatic success of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate polysaccharide vaccine in reducing the incidence of invasive disease due to Hib, the relative importance of invasive disease due to S. pneumoniae has increased substantially (1). There is also some evidence to suggest that there has recently been an absolute increase in the incidence of bacteremic pneumococcal disease. (2,3).

Efforts to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with infections due to S. pneumoniae include vaccination to prevent disease and the prompt use of effective antimicrobial agents for treatment. Limitations in the use and efficacy of vaccines have meant that pneumococci continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality despite the availability of effective antimicrobials. The recent rapid emergence of multi-drug resistant pneumococci threatens to dramatically increase the overall impact of pneumococcal disease. (4,5).

Protection against S. pneumoniae depends primarily on antibodies against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides (PPS). Current vaccines, which contain the PPS of the 23 most common invasive serotypes, can induce anticapsular antibodies in adults and children of more than 2 years of age. However, these vaccines continue to be under-utilized, and its value is limited by the fact that its protective efficacy is poorest in the populations that are at greatest risk. In addition, many of the serotypes commonly causing pediatric infections are poorly immunogenic in infants and young children.

The reason for the lack of efficacy of the current vaccine is that polysaccharide vaccine antigens, including PPS, are poorly immunogenic (4). Covalent coupling of the pneumococcal polysaccharide to a protein appears to be the best method of improving immunogenicity. This approach has worked well for Hib vaccines. However, the development of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines will be delayed by the need to produce a highly immunogenic conjugate for each serotype included in the vaccine. Further, even if pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are effective against invasive infections, they may not provide adequate protection against mucosal infections, where the majority of pneumococcal morbidity occurs.

The absence of prospects for a fully effective vaccine makes the rapid emergence of strains of S. pneumoniae with decreased susceptibility to penicillin and other classes of antimicrobials an extremely serious concern. Penicillin-susceptible pneumococci are those with a penicillin MIC < 0.06 µg/ml. Strains with decreased susceptibility include intermediate strains, with an MIC between 0.1 and 1 µg/ml and resistant strains with an MIC > 1µg/ml (6). Following early documentation of penicillin-resistant pneumococcal infections in Australia and South Africa in the 1960s and 1970s, reports of infections appeared from a wide geographic area during the 1980s. Since then there has been dramatic increase world-wide, including the United States and Canada, not only in resistance to penicillin but also in resistance to other antimicrobials (7-9).

Penicillins and cephalosporins act by binding to and inhibiting the action of bacterial cell wall enzymes called penicillin binding proteins (PBPs). Strains develop resistance through stepwise alterations to PBPs which produce enzymes with progressively lower affinity for these antimicrobials. PBP alteration may occur either by introduction of point mutations into PBP genes or by remodeling of PBP genes with foreign DNA (10). In the latter instance, pneumococci take up foreign DNA from their environment (transformation) and replace their "penicillin-susceptible" PBP genes with those from closely-related streptococcal species that by chance produce PBPs with lower affinity for penicillin. In either case, there is a stepwise increase in resistance to penicillin. Although the effect is most marked for penicillin, the altered PBPs also have decreased affinity for other ß-lactam antibiotics. Consequently, most penicillin-resistant pneumococci have decreased susceptibility to the cephalosporins, including third generation cephalosporins (11).

The reasons for the dramatic increase in penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae in North America during the last decade are poorly understood. Prior to 1987, isolates identified from surveillance studies carried out in the United States and Canada, found rates of high level resistance to penicillin to be 0.02% and 0%, respectively (12,13). Subsequent studies have found rates of > 5% (14,15). It seems likely that excessive therapeutic and prophylactic use of antimicrobials provides selective pressure for the emergence of penicillin resistant S. pneumoniae. In addition, there is now evidence to suggest that shifts in the type of antimicrobials (for instance, from penicillin or amoxicillin to the increased use of oral cephalosporins) may be an important contribution to the problem (16).

The development of penicillin resistance in a strain is often associated with increases in resistance to other classes of antimicrobials (5,14). In surveillance studies carried out across Canada, we found that as susceptibility decreased to penicillin, resistance to other classes of antimicrobials increased, including antibiotics no longer in use (i.e. chloramphenicol) (Table 1). It is not known why this occurs, as penicillin resistance is not on a mobile genetic element which could carry other resistance determinants. Possibly penicillin-resistance provides some survival advantage for strains which have acquired chromosomal mutations or conjugative transposons resulting in drug resistance. It may also be true that penicillin-resistant strains have usually been exposed to other antibiotics, thus increasing selective pressure for the development of concomitant resistance.
The problem of increasing multi-drug resistance in the pneumococci means that clinicians must know (and keep track of changes in) the prevalence and susceptibility pattern of resistant isolates in their community and use this data to reassess their selection of first and second line antimicrobials for each particular type of pneumococcal infection.

Despite the decreased susceptibility of pneumococci to the ß-lactams, high-dose penicillin is likely to be effective in patients with non-meningeal bacteremic infections or pneumonia if the MIC of penicillin is £ 2 µg/ml (17,18) (Table 2). However, patients infected with strains of pneumococci that are highly resistant to penicillin (MIC >2 µg/m) may not respond (17). Highly penicillin-resistant isolates may be resistant to extended spectrum penicillins and the cephalosporins. The cephalosporins with greatest activity are ceftriaxone and cefotaxime. Despite reports of isolates of S.pneumoniae with cefotaxime and ceftriaxone MICs of >8 µg/ml and >4 µg/ml respectively, MICs of <4 µg/ml and <2 µg/ml are more common (11,19,20), and patients with invasive non-meningeal pneumococcal infection with high-level penicillin resistance can be treated with either cefotaxime or ceftriaxone. Theoretically, ceftriaxone and vancomycin, for which serum levels can be maintained at >3 x MIC for the entire duration of a q12h dosing interval, are optimal agents for treatment of these infections (11,21,22).

There have been reports of failures of penicillin, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, chloramphenicol and vancomycin in pneumococcal meningitis due to organisms with intermediate or high-level resistance to penicillin or third generation cephalosporins (23-25). As a result, despite an absence of clinical data, combination therapy has been recommended for this infection (14). Ceftriaxone and vancomycin have been used successfully as a combination experimentally, even when the strains are ceftriaxone-resistant (26). The use of dexamethasone in pneumococcal meningitis is controversial (27). Since relatively few patients with pneumococcal meningitis were included in the large randomized studies of this therapy for bacterial meningitis, no conclusions can be made regarding its effectiveness. However, preliminary animal studies have found that dexamethasone decreases the penetration of vancomycin and ceftriaxone into the CSF and delays sterilization (28). This would support the argument against the use of dexamethasone in the treatment of meningitis due to S. pneumoniae when the isolate has decreased susceptibility to penicillin.

The treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) caused by penicillin-resistant pneumococci is complicated by the poor penetration of most orally administered ß-lactams into the inner ear. With the exception of amoxicillin, the ß-lactams have reduced activity and some have been associated with treatment failure (11,29,30). Unfortunately the associated multi-drug resistance limits the use of alternative agents such as erythromycin, clindamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (14). Because AOM is not a life threatening infection, may not always be caused by a bacteria, and may resolve spontaneously, the choice of an antimicrobial for empiric therapy need not provide coverage for every potential resistant pathogen (31). Therefore, amoxicillin remains the drug of choice for the empiric therapy of AOM. If an isolate is available for susceptibility testing as a result of tympanocentesis, then therapy can be adjusted according to results of this testing (Table 2).

Second line treatment for AOM which has failed to respond to amoxicillin should be selected based on common pneumococcal resistance patterns in the geographic area. Refractory AOM may require tympanocentesis in order to determine its etiology, and tympanotomy and combination oral or parenteral antimicrobials for therapy (32).

The emergence of multi-drug-resistant pneumococci is an alarming problem. In order to continue to adequately treat patients with pneumococcal infections, many physicians must change their prescribing practice for the treatment of common infections. These changes in prescribing practice can only be appropriately directed by improved surveillance for resistance in pneumococci in all geographic areas. Optimal protection against the impact of pneumococcal disease will require a concerted effort of physicians, patients and public health departments to optimize the use of available vaccine and to reduce the selective pressure for the development of resistance by prudent antimicrobial use in all settings.

References

  1. Givner LB, Woods CR Jr., Abramson JS. The practice of pediatrics in the era of vaccines effective against Haemophilus influenzae type b. Pediatrics 1994; 93:680-681.
  2. Foster JA, McGowan KL. Rising rate of pneumococcal bacteremia at the children's hospital of Philadelphia. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1994; 13:1143-44.
  3. Baer M, Vuento R, Vesikari T. Increase in bacteremic pneumococcal infections in children. The Lancet 1995; 345:661.
  4. van den Dobbelsteen GPJM, van Rees EP. Mucosal immune responses to pneumococcal polysaccharides: implications for vaccination. Trends in Micro 1995; 3:155-159.
  5. Klugman KP. Pneumococcal resistance to antibiotics. Clin Micro Rev 1990; 3:171-196.
  6. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically, 3rd edn; Approved Standard M7-A3, Villanova: NCCLS, 1993.
  7. Appelbaum PC. Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae: An overview. Clin Infect Dis 1992; 15:77-83.
  8. Low DE, Gregson D, Kanchana MV, et al. The rapid emergence of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) in Ontario. 34th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Orlando, Florida, 1994 (abstract C22).
  9. Breiman RF, Butler JC, Tenover FC, Elliott JA, Facklam RR. Emergence of drug-resistant pneumococcal infections in the United States. JAMA 1994; 271:1831-1835.
  10. Spratt BG. Resistance to antibiotics mediated by target alterations. Science 1994; 264:388-393.
  11. Appelbaum PC. New prospects for antibacterial agents against multidrug-resistant pneumococci. Microbial Drug Resistance 1995; 1:43-48.
  12. Spika JS, Facklam RR, Pikaytis BD, Oxtoby MJ, the Pneumococcal Surveillance Working Group. Antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States, 1979-1987. J Infect Dis 1991; 163:1273-1278.
  13. Mazzulli T, Simor AE, Jaeger R, Fuller S, Low DE. Comparative in vitro activities of several new fluoroquinolones and ß-lactam antimicrobial agents against community isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1990; 34:467-469.
  14. Hofmann J, Cetron MS, Farley MM, et al. The prevalence of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Atlanta. N Engl J Med 1995; 333:481-486.
  15. Evans TG, Kamara A, Minnick K, Blevins D, Sosnowski K. Pneumococcal resistance in Southwest Virginia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1995; 39:985-986.
  16. Negri MC, Morosini MI, Loza E, Baquero F. In vitro selective antibiotic concentrations of ß-lactams for penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae populations. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1994; 38:122-125.
  17. Pallares R, Linares J, Vadillo M, et al. Resistance to penicillin and cephalosporin and mortality from severe pneumococcal pneumonia in Barcelona, Spain. N Engl J Med 1995; 333:474-480.
  18. Tan TQ, Mason EO Jr, Kaplan SL. Systemic infections due to Streptococcus pneumoniae relatively resistant to penicillin in a children's hospital: clinical management and outcome. Pediatrics 1992; 90:928-933.
  19. Klugman KP. Pneumococcal resistance to the third-generation cephalosporins: clinical, laboratory and molecular aspects. Int J Antimicrob Agents 1994; 4:63-67.
  20. Leggiadro RJ, Davis Y, Tenover FC. Outpatient drug-resistant pneumococcal bacteremia. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 1994; 13:1144-1146.
  21. Paradis D, Vallee F, Allard S, et al. Comparative study of pharmacokinetics and serum bactericidal activities of cefpirome, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, imipenem, and ciprofloxacin. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1992; 36:2085-2092.
  22. Moellering RC Jr, Krogstad DJ, Greenblatt DJ. Vancomycin therapy in patients with impaired renal function: a nomogram for dosage 1981; 94:343-345.
  23. Viladrich PF, Gudiol F, Linares J, et al. Evaluation of vancomycin for therapy of adult pneumococcal meningitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1991; 35:246-272.
  24. Friedland IR, McCracken GH Jr. Management of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. N Engl J Med 1994; 331:337-382.
  25. Applebaum PC, Bhamjee A, Scragg JN, et al. Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to penicillin and chloramphenicol. Lancet 1977; II:995.
  26. Friedland IR, Paris M, Ehretts, et al. Evaluation of antimicrobial regimens for treatment of experimental penicillin and cephalosporin-resistant pneumococcal meningitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1993; 37:1630.
  27. Schaad UB, Kaplan SL, McCracken GH, Jr. Steroid therapy for bacterial meningitis. Clin Infect Dis 1995; 20:685-690.
  28. Paris MM, Hickey SM, Uscher MI, et al. Effect of dexamethasone on therapy of experimental penicillin-and cephalosporin-resistant pneumococcal meningitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1994; 38:1320.
  29. Barry B, Gehanno P, Blumen M, Boucot I. Clinical outcome of acute otitis media caused by pneumococci with decreased susceptibility to penicillin. Scand J Infect Dis 1994; 26:446-452.
  30. Gehanno P, Lenoir G, Berche P. In vivo correlates for Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin resistance in acute otitis media. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1995; 39:271-272.
  31. Klein JO. Otitis media. Clin Infect Dis 1994; 19:823-833.
  32. Block SL, Hedrick JA, Tyler RD, Smith RA. Penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PR Sp) in acute otitis media (AOM) in healthy children: Outpatient antibiotic management. 34th ICAAC Meeting 1995; p. 260 (Abstract #M64).
  33. Committee on Infectious Diseases, American Academy of Pediatrics. Pneumococcal Infections. In: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 23rd ed. Elk Grove, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 1994; 371-375.
 

ALLIANCE FOR THE PRUDENT USE OF ANTIBIOTICS © 1999

| Home | About APUA | Int'l Chapters | Contact Us | Search |
|
Consumer Information | Practitioner Information | Research & Surveillance | News |