Ioannis D. evrigenis
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Employment

Professor, Department of Political Science, Tufts University, since 2015

Chair, Department of Classics, since 2015

Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, Tufts University, 2010-2015

Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Tufts University, 2005-2010

Education

Ph.D., Political Science, Harvard University, June 2005.

A.M., Political Science, Harvard University, June 2002.

M.Sc. Politics I (Political Theory), London School of Economics & Political Science, November 1994.

B.A., Political Science, Grinnell College, May 1993.

Publications

Books

Images of Anarchy: The Rhetoric and Science in Hobbes's State of Nature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Fear of Enemies and Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Winner of the 2009 Delba Winthrop Award for Excellence in Political Science

Greek edition: Αντίπαλον Δέος: Έξωθεν Φόβος και Συλλογική Δράση. Irakleio: Crete University Press, 2014.

Johann Gottfried Herder. Another Philosophy of History and Selected Political Writings. Trans. & ed. with Daniel Pellerin. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 2004.

Digital Edition: The Bodin Project

Digital, variorum, annotated edition of Jean Bodin's Les six livres de la republique (1576), De Republica Libri Sex (1586), The Six Bookes of a Commonweale (1606) to be hosted on the Perseus Digital Library, in progress.

Journal Special Issue

“Pact with the Devil: The Ethics, Politics, and Economics of Anti-Machiavellian Machiavellism.” Co-edited with Mark Somos. History of European Ideas 37, no. 2 (2011): 85-152.

Articles & Chapters

“The State of Nature.” In The Oxford Handbook of Hobbes, edited by A.P. Martinich & Kinch Hoekstra, 221-41. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.

“Digital Tools and the History of Political Thought: The Case of Jean Bodin.” Redescriptions 18, no. 2 (Autumn 2015): 181-201.

Winner of the 2016 RSA-TCP Article Prize for Digital Renaissance Research, Renaissance Society of America

“Liberty and Law.” In A Companion to Intellectual History, edited by Richard Whatmore & Brian Young, 249-61. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2016.

“‘Not Truth but Image Maketh Passion:’ Hobbes on Instigation and Appeasing.” In Passions and Subjectivity in Early Modern Culture, edited by Freya Sierhuis & Brian Cummings, 165-80. Farnham: Ashgate, 2013.

“Sir Walter Raleigh’s Machiavelli.” In Machiavelli in the British Isles, edited by Alessandra Petrina & Alessandro Arienzo, 59-74 Farnham: Ashgate, 2013.

“Absolute Chaos, Absolute Order: The Rhetoric of the State of Nature in the Discourse of Sovereignty.” In Monarchism and Absolutism in Early Modern Europe, edited by Cesare Cuttica & Glenn Burgess, 177-85, 256-59. London: Pickering & Chatto, 2012.

(With Mark Somos) “Wrestling with Machiavelli.” History of European Ideas 37, no. 2 (2011): 85-93.

“Enlightenment, Emancipation, and National Identity: Korais and the Ancients.” In Korais and the European Enlightenment. SVEC, 2010: 10. Edited by Paschalis M. Kitromilides, 91-108. Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 2010.

“The Power Struggle of Republic I.” History of Political Thought XXXI, no. 3 (Autumn 2010): 367-82.

“Freeing Man from Sin: Rousseau on the Natural Condition of Mankind.” In Rousseau and Freedom, edited by Christie McDonald & Stanley Hoffmann, 9-23. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

“Hobbes’s Clockwork: The State of Nature & Machiavelli’s Return to the Beginnings of Cities.” In The Arts of Rule: Essays in Honor of Harvey Mansfield., edited by Sharon Krause & Mary Ann McGrail, 185-99. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2009.

“Easier Said Than Done: Socratic Courage & the Fear of Death.” History of Political Thought XXVIII, no. 3 (Autumn 2007): 379-401.

“Hobbes’s Thucydides.” Journal of Military Ethics 5, No. 4, special issue: “Thucydides and Civil War’ (2006): 303-16.

“A Founder on Founding: Jefferson’s Advice to Koraes.” The Historical Review I (2004): 157-81.

“The Psychology of Politics: The City-Soul Analogy in Plato’s Republic.” History of Political Thought XXIII, No. 4 (Winter 2002): 590-610.

“The Doctrine of the Mean in Aristotle’s Ethical and Political Theory.” History of Political Thought XX, No. 3 (Autumn 1999): 393-416.

Other Publications

Debate on Hobbes's State of Nature with Raffaella Santi, European Hobbes Society

Review of Rousseau and Hobbes: Nature, Free Will, and the Passions, by Robin Douglass. Hobbes Studies 29, no. 2: 210-14.

Review of Politics in Socrates' Alcibiades: A Philosophical Account of Plato's Dialogue Alcibiades Major, by Andre Archie. Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews, 2015.08.23.

Critical Dialogue:

Review of Ruling Oneself Out: A Theory of Collective Abdications, by Ivan Ermakoff. Perspectives on Politics 7, no. 1 (March 2009): 164-65.

Response to Ivan Ermakoff’s Review of Fear of Enemies and Collective Action. Perspectives on Politics 7, no. 1 (March 2009): 167.

“Machiavellianism”; “Sovereignty”; “State”; “State of Nature”. In The Cambridge Dictionary of Political Thought, edited by Terence Ball. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, forthcoming.

Presentations

“Why Read Hobbes's Leviathan Today,” University of California Berkeley, 16 November 2017

“Machiavelli's Science of Politics,” Jack Miller Center Annual Summit, Philadelphia, 2 November 2017

“Property, Industry, and Commodious Living: The Economic Foundations of Hobbesian Society,” International Hobbes Scholars Association Conference, University of Paris, 28 October 2017

“Justice, Self-Sufficiency, and Commodious Living: Hobbes's Commercial Republic,” Tufts Political Theory Workshop, 29 September 2017

“Hobbes and Rousseau,” Being Human: The History of a Concept Workshop, University of Toronto, 10-11 June 2017

“Jean Bodin's Les six livres de la république,” Digital Technologies in the Social Sciences Workshop, Harvard Business School, 5 June 2017

“Property, Industry, and Commodious Living: The Economic Foundations of Hobbesian Society,” Annual Meeting of the Renaissance Society of America, Chicago, 31 March 2017

“Natural Political Economy,” Università degli Studi Roma Tre, 22 March 2017

“Hobbes's Thucydides,” British School at Rome, 20 March 2017

“Justice, Self-Sufficiency, and Commodious Living: Hobbes's Commercial Republicanism,” Commercial Republicanism Conference, Yale University, 3 December 2017

“Fortune, Virtue, and Risk: Machiavelli's ferma scienza,” The Italian Roots of Modernity Conference, Tufts University & Harvard University, 11 November 2017

“Context and Canon: The Case of Hobbes,” Political Theory Workshop, Yale University, 2 November 2017

“Natural Political Economy,” Annual Meeting of the Renaissance Society of America, Boston, 1 April 2016

“Context and Canon: The Case of Hobbes,” The Ostrom Workshop, Tocqueville Series, Department of Political Science, Indiana University, 23 October 2015

“The Cassandra Crossing: Greece and Europe,” The Modern Greek Studies Program, Indiana University, 22 October 2015

“Have We Lived Up to the Standards of Ancient Greece?” Second Annual Lecture in Modern Philhellenism, Boston University, 26 March 2015

“Digital Tools and the History of Political Thought,” YFI Forum, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, 12 December 2014

“Enmity and Identity,” The Mediterranean as a Site of Interaction among Diverse Political Cultures Workshop, Remarque Institute, New York University, 21-22 November 2014

“Hobbes's Caveat: The Political Economy of Leviathan,” George Washington University Political Science Department Speaker Series, Washington, DC, 24 October 2014

“Context and Canon: The Case of Hobbes's Aristotle,” Mahindra Humanities Center, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 21 October 2014

“Context and Canon: The Case of Hobbes,” Institute of Political Science, Centre for Social Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 18 September 2014

“Diffidence, Trust, and Commodious Living,” Trust and Happiness in the History of Political Thought, Third International Conference of the European Society for the History of Political Thought, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary, 17 September 2014

“Bodin's Leviathan: The Evolution of Sovereignty from République to Republica,” Community, Government, and Territoriality in the Political Thought of Jean Bodin Conference, St. Anne's College, Oxford University, 24 June 2014

“The Bodin Project,” Working with Text in a Digital Age NEH Institute, Tufts University, 28 March 2014

“What to Do about Plato's Socrates and Republic,” Department of Classics, Tufts University, 9 December 2013

“Is Machiavelli a Philosopher?” A Conference on the 500th Anniversary of the Writing of Niccolò Machiavelli's The Prince, The Program on Constitutional Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 19-20 September 2013

“Hobbes and the Indians,” European Early American Studies Association Conference, Bayreuth, Germany, 14 December 2012

“Not Truth but Image Maketh Passion: Hobbes on Instigation and Appeasing,” Passions and Subjectivity in Early Modern Culture Conference, Center for Advanced Studies, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, Germany, 25 October 2011

“A Conversion to Order: Reformation and Science in the Political Philosophy of Hobbes,” Reformation Studies Institute Seminar, University of St. Andrews, 20 October 2011

“Hobbes and Genesis,” European Association of Biblical Studies, Thessaloniki, Greece, 9 August 2011

Pacis studio: Civil Science as Reason of State in the Political Philosophy of Hobbes,” Wrestling with Machiavelli Conference, Cambridge, MA, 28 May 2011

“The Aristotelianism of Thomas Hobbes,” Southern Political Science Association Conference, New Orleans, LA, 9 January 2011

“Absolute Chaos, Absolute Order: The Rhetoric of the State of Nature in the Discourse of Sovereignty,” Absolutism, Monarchism and Despotism: Historiographical Issues and Theoretical Developments in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries in European Context Conference, Sussex Centre for Intellectual History, Brighton, UK, 14 July 2010.

“‘Yet Were It Needlesse to Cite Machiavell’: Sir Walter Raleigh’s Machiavelli,” Pact with the Devil: The Ethics, Politics, and Economics of Anti-Machiavellian Machiavellism Conference, Brighton, UK, 28 May 2010

“The Political Significance of Enemies,” University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Greece, 19 April 2010

“The Power Struggle of Republic I,” Classical Philosophy Program Colloquium, Princeton University, 17 April 2009

“Enlightenment, Emancipation, National Identity: Koraes & the Ancients,” Hellenic Studies Program, Princeton University, 3 March 2009

“The State of Nature, the State, and Perpetual Peace and War,” Reforming the European State System in the Long Eighteenth Century Conference, Vadstena, Sweden, 12 September 2008

“Enlightenment, Emancipation, National Identity: Koraes & the Ancients,” Center for European Studies, Harvard University, 7 February 2007

“Rousseau’s Second Discourse,” Harvard Rousseau Seminar, 27 September 2007

“Rousseau’s Hobbism,” Rockefeller Foundation Study & Conference Center, Bellagio, Italy, 16 May 2007

“Enlightenment, Emancipation, National Identity: Koraes & the Ancients,” University of Michigan Center for European Studies, 11 January 2007

“Teaching by Example: Plato on Fear and Courage,” Northeastern Political Science Association Meeting, Boston, MA, November 2006

“Recovering Plato’s Thrasymachus,” American Political Science Association Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, August 2006

“The Enemy of My Enemy Is My Friend: Negative Association & Reason of State,” London School of Economics & Political Science Political Theory Seminar, 2 May 2006

“Carthage Must Be Saved: Fear of Enemies & Collective Action,” Grinnell College, 6 April 2006

“Suicide Terrorism,” EPIIC, Tufts University, 22 November 2005

“Fear of Enemies & Collective Action,” EPIIC, Tufts University, 15 September 2005.

“The Politics of Enmity: Schmitt, Morgenthau, & the Revival of Realism,” Harvard University Political Theory Colloquium, 12 November 2004.

“The Essence of the Political: Hobbes on the Fear of Enemies & Collective Action,” Yale Political Philosophy Colloquium, 11 May 2004.

“Carthage Must Be Saved: Fear of Enemies & Collective Action,” American Political Science Association Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, August 2003

“Britain and the Creation of the United Nations Human Rights Regime,” with Andrew Moravcsik, American Political Science Association Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, August 2003

“Carthage Must Be Saved: Fear of Enemies & Collective Action,” New England Political Science Association Meeting, Providence, RI, May 2003

Metus Hostilis: Community Formation on the Basis of Fear,” Northeast Political Science Association Meeting, Providence, RI, November 2002

“Fear in the Political Philosophy of Plato,” Northeastern Political Science Association Meeting, Albany, NY, November 2000

“The Psychology of Politics: The City-Soul Analogy in Plato’s Republic”, Midwest Political Science Association Meeting, Chicago, IL, April 2000

“‘An egoistical philosophy whose preaching is deadly’: Rousseau’s Patriotism as a Remedy against the Teachings of the Philosophes,” Northeast Political Science Association Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, November 1999

“The Institution and Dissolution of Government and Society and Their Implications for Locke’s State of Nature,” New York State Political Science Association Conference, St. John’s University, NY, May 1999

Honors

Prizes

RSA-TCP Article Prize for Digital Renaissance Research, Renaissance Society of America, for “Digital Tools and the History of Political Thought: The Case of Jean Bodin.”, 2016

Delba Winthrop Award for Excellence in Political Science, for Fear of Enemies and Collective Action, 2009

Richard J. Herrnstein Prize for the PhD dissertation entitled “‘Carthage Must Be Saved’: Fear of Enemies and Collective Action”, judged to be “the best dissertation that exhibits excellent scholarship, originality and breadth of thought, and a commitment to intellectual independence”, Graduate School of Arts & Sciences, Harvard University, 2005

Fellowships and Grants

Tisch College Faculty Fellowship, 2017-2018

Tufts University Faculty Research Awards Committee, Faculty Research Grant for the Bodin Project, 2016

Tisch College Faculty Fellowship, 2015-2016

Fulbright Specialist Grant, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, December 2014

Tufts University Tufts Innovates! Grant for The Bodin Project, 2013-2014

Earhard Foundation Fellowship Research Grant, 2013

Tufts University Faculty Research Awards Committee Senior Research Semester Fellowship, 2011

Tisch College Faculty Fellowship, 2010-2011

Princeton University Center for Human Values Laurance S. Rockefeller Visiting Fellowship, 2008-2009

American Philosophical Society Franklin Research Grant, 2008

National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Stipend, 2008

Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study Fellowship, 2008-2009 (declined)

Wellesley College Newhouse Center for the Humanities Fellowship, 2008-2009 (declined)

Tufts University Faculty Research Awards Committee Summer Faculty Fellowship, 2007

Tufts University Bernstein Faculty Fellowship, 2006-2008

Tufts University Faculty Research Awards Committee Summer Faculty Fellowship, 2006

Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation Dissertation Fellowship, 2004-2005

Earhart Foundation H.B. Earhart Fellowship, 2004-2005

Harvard University Graduate Student Council Summer Research Grant, 2003

Harvard University Minda de Gunzburg Center for European Studies Graduate Travel Grant, 2002

Harvard University Graduate School of Arts & Sciences Douglas Dillon Fellowship, 2001-2002

Harvard University Program on Constitutional Government Summer Grant, 2001-2004

Harvard University Graduate School of Arts & Sciences Summer School Fellowship, 2001

Harvard University Center for Basic Research in the Social Sciences Graduate Fellowship in Mathematics, 2001

Harvard University Graduate School of Arts & Sciences Harvard Grant, 2000-2005

New York University Graduate School of Arts & Science Travel Grant, 1999

New York University Graduate School of Arts and Science Pre-doctoral Summer Fellowship, 1999

A.S. Onassis Public Benefit Foundation Scholarship, 1998-2000

New York University Program for Hellenic Studies Fellowship, 1997-1999

Awards

Certificate of Distinction in Teaching for Liberalism (Spring 2004), Derek Bok Center for Teaching & Learning, Harvard University, October 2004

Certificate of Distinction in Teaching for Constitutional Democracy in America (Fall 2003), Derek Bok Center for Teaching & Learning, Harvard University, April 2004

Certificate of Distinction in Teaching for The Public & the Private in Politics, Morality, and Law (Spring 2003), Derek Bok Center for Teaching & Learning, Harvard University, October 2003

Certificate of Distinction in Teaching for Modern Political Philosophy (Spring 2003), Derek Bok Center for Teaching & Learning, Harvard University, October 2003

Certificate of Distinction in Teaching for The Public & the Private in Politics, Morality, and Law (Spring 2002), Derek Bok Center for Teaching & Learning, Harvard University, November 2002

Honorable Mention: Hellenic Army, Greece, June 1996

Invited Seminars

Popular Sovereignty, Social Science Research Council, Tarrytown, NY, 23-26 June 2017

Being Human: The History of a Concept, University of Toronto, 10-11 June 2017

Digital Technologies in the Social Sciences, Harvard Business School, 5 June 2017

Popular Sovereignty, Social Science Research Council, Swarthmore, PA, 8-11 January 2017

Politics, Anthropology, and Nature, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, 22 March 2017

Commercial Republicanism, Yale University, 2-3 December 2016

The Italian Roots of Modernity: Machiavelli and Galileo, Tufts University and Harvard University, 10-11 November 2016

Vortex: The Motif of the Whirlpool and Psychic Phenomena in Ancient Greece, Tufts University, 17 April 2015

The Mediterranean as a Site of Interation among Diverse Political Cultures, Remarque Institute, New York University, 21-22 November 2014

Science, Enterprise, and Law in the Making of the Modern Commercial Republic, Jack Miller Center Summer Institute, Pasadena, CA, 30 June-11 July 2014

Community, Government, & Territoriality in the Political Thought of Jean Bodin Conference, St. Anne's College, Oxford University, 24 June 2014

Europe in Turmoil EPIIC Symposium, 18 February 2016

Jack Miller Center Summer Institute, Pasadena, CA, 30 June-11 July 2014

A Conference on the 500th Anniversary of the Writing of Niccolò Machiavelli's The Prince, The Program on Constitutional Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 19-20 September 2013

Passions and Subjectivity in Early Modern Culture, Center for Advanced Studies, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, Germany, 23-25 October 2011

National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Seminar: English Encounters with the Americas, 1550-1610, MIT, July 2011

Absolutism, Monarchism and Despotism: Historiographical Issues and Theoretical Developments in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries in European Context, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK, 13-14 July 2010

Isaiah Berlin: Centennial Reflections, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 25-26 September 2009

Research Workshop on Thomas Hobbes, McGill University, Montreal, Canada, 21-22 March 2009

Commerce and Perpetual Peace in the Long Eighteenth Century, King’s College, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 13-14 December 2008

Reforming the European State System in the Long Eighteenth Century, European Science Foundation, Vadstena, Sweden, 10-14 September 2008

Jean-Jacques Rousseau & the Concept of Freedom in His Work, Rockefeller Foundation Study & Conference Center, Bellagio, Italy, 15-19 May, 2007

Representation & Accountability in the Age of ‘Democratic Deficit,’ Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study Exploratory Seminar, 21 May 2004

Power and Its Representations in Early Modern England, Mellon Foundation Seminar, Dir. Mark Kishlansky, Harvard University, Summer 2003

Teaching & Other Work Experience

Tufts University

Western Political Thought I, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016

Western Political Thought II, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016

Political Theory Methods: Bodin, 2014

Political Theory Methods: Hobbes, 2011

Ethics and International Relations, 2010, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016

Political Theory Methods: Machiavellism, 2010

The Social Contract, 2007, 2009, 2013

Plato’s Socrates, 2008, 2010, 2011, 2013, 2015

Plato's Republic, 2012, 2013, 2015

The Political Thought of Machiavelli, 2006, 2007

Theories of Nationalism, 2005

The Political Philosophy of Hobbes, 2005, 2006, 2014, 2016

Senior Honors Thesis Advisor, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2014, 2015

Summer Scholar Mentor, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

Harvard University

Senior Thesis Writers’ Seminar, Political Theory Section, Harvard University, 2004-2005

Terror & Terrorism, Harvard University, 2005

Head Teaching Fellow: Ethics & Everyday Life, Harvard University,2005

Head Teaching Fellow: The Public & the Private in Politics, Morality, & Law, Harvard University, 2002, 2003, 2004

Head Teaching Fellow: Liberalism, Harvard University, 2004

Teaching Fellow: Constitutional Democracy in America, Harvard University,2003

Head Teaching Fellow: The History of Modern Political Philosophy, Harvard University, 2003

Teaching Fellow: Constitutional Democracy in America, Harvard University, 2002

Senior Thesis Advisor: Department of Government, Harvard University, 2001-2002, 2004-2005

New York University

Teaching Assistant: Civil Liberties, New York University, 1999

Teaching Assistant: Introduction to Political Theory, New York University, 1998

Hellenic Army

Second Lieutenant, Quartermaster (Artillery): Hellenic Army, Greece, July 1994-June 1996

Professional Service

Conferences and Colloquia

Co-Organizer: “Wrestling with Machiavelli” Conference, with Mark Somos, Cambridge, MA, 28-29 May 2011

Co-Organizer: “Pact with the Devil: The Ethics, Politics, and Economics of Anti-Machiavellian Machiavellism” Conference, with Mark Somos, Brighton, UK, 28-29 May 2010

Co-organizer, Research Network on Anti-Machiavellian Machiavellism, with Mark Somos, 2008-2011

Respondent: “Pluralism: Historical Origins and Philosophical Foundations,” Isaiah Berlin: Centennial Reflections Conference, Harvard University, 26 September 2009

Member: Modern Greek Studies Association 2009 Conference Organizing Committee

Chair: “Europe and the New World” Panel, Reforming the European State System in the Long Eighteenth Century, Vadstena, Sweden, 13 September 2008

Co-Coordinator: Weatherhead Center Seminar on Ethics and International Relations, Harvard University, May 2001-May 2003

Coordinator: Department of Government Political Theory Colloquium, Harvard University, September 2001-February 2003

Tufts University

University IT Governance Subcommittee on Research & Scholarship; Arts & Sciences Strategic Planning & Implementation Committee, 2014; Budget and Priorities Committee, 2013-2014; International Relations Program Executive Committee, since January 2006; International Relations Program Curriculum Committee, since 2007; Athletics Committee, 2006-2011; Political Science Department Junior Search Committee, 2006-2007, 2008-2009; Graduate Program Committee, since September 2005; University Information Technology Liaison; various other University and Department Committees and positions, since 2005

Harvard University

Member: Kira Petersen PhD Dissertation Committee, Department of Government, Harvard University, 2007-2011

Member: Mark Somos PhD Dissertation Committee, Department of Government, Harvard University, 2006-2007

Reviews

American Journal of Political Science, American Political Science Review, Canadian Journal of Political Science, Grotiana, History of European Ideas, History of Political Thought, Hobbes Studies, Journal of Church and State, Journal of Early Modern Cultural Studies, Journal of the History of Ideas, Journal of the History of Philosophy, Journal of Politics, Literature & History, Nations & Nationalism, Perspectives on Politics, Political Research Quarterly, Political Studies, Political Theory, Polity, The Review of Politics, Cambridge University Press, Hackett Publishing Company, Harvard University Press, Oxford University Press, University of Toronto Press, Wiley, American Philosophical Society, European Science Foundation, Fulbright, Harvard University, National Endowment for the Humanities, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, University of California, Berkeley

Languages

Mod. Greek • Anc. Greek • French • German • Italian • Latin