Bloom CA, Labato MA, Hazarika S, Court MH. Preliminary pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of fenoldopam continuous rate infusion in six healthy dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Jun;35(3):224-30.

Court MH, Zhang X, Ding X, Yee KK, Hesse LM, Finel M. Quantitative distribution of mRNAs encoding the 19 human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes in 26 adult and 3 fetal tissues. Xenobiotica. 2012 Mar;42(3):266-77.

Bratton SM, Mosher CM, Khallouki F, Finel M, Court MH, Moran JH, Radominska-Pandya A.  Analysis of R- and S-Hydroxywarfarin glucuronidation catalyzed by human liver microsomes and recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012 Jan;340(1):46-55.

Bolling BW, Court MH, Blumberg JB, Chen CY. The kinetic basis for age-associated changes in quercetin and genistein glucuronidation by rat liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2011 Aug;39(8):1406-14.

Kwara A, Tashima KT, Dumond JB, Poethke P, Kurpewski J, Kashuba AD, Court MH, Greenblatt DJ. Modest but Variable Effect of Rifampin on Steady-State Plasma Pharmacokinetics of Efavirenz in Healthy African-American and Caucasian Volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Jul;55(7):3527-33.

Dostalek M, Court MH, Yan B, Akhlaghi F. Significantly reduced cytochrome P450 3A4 expression and activity in liver from humans with diabetes mellitus. Br J Pharmacol. 2011 Jul;163(5):937-47.

Radwanski NE, Cerundolo R, Shofer FS, Hanley MJ, Court MH. Effects of powdered whole grapefruit and metoclopramide on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine in dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2011 May;72(5):687-93.

Dostalek M, Court MH, Hazarika S, Akhlaghi F.  Diabetes Mellitus Reduce Activity Of Human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT 2B7) In Liver And Kidney Leading To Decreased Formation Of Mycophenolic Acid Acyl-Glucuronide Metabolite. Drug Metab Dispos. 2011 Mar;39(3):448-55.

Shrestha B, Reed JM, Starks PT, Kaufman GE, Goldstone JV, Roelke ME, O'Brien SJ, Koepfli KP, Frank LG, Court MH. Evolution of a major drug metabolizing enzyme defect in the domestic cat and other felidae: phylogenetic timing and the role of hypercarnivory. PLoS One. 2011 Mar 28;6(3):e18046.

Greenblatt DJ, Zhao Y, Venkatakrishnan K, Duan SX, Harmatz JS, Parent SJ, Court MH, von Moltke LL. Mechanism of cytochrome P450-3A inhibition by ketoconazole. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011 Feb;63(2):214-21.

Kwara A, Lartey M, Sagoe KW, Court MH. Paradoxically elevated efavirenz concentrations in HIV/tuberculosis-coinfected patients with CYP2B6 516TT genotype on rifampin-containing antituberculous therapy. AIDS. 2011 Jan 28;25(3):388-90.

Melanson SE, Stevenson K, Kim H, Antin JH, Court MH, Ho VT, Ritz J, Soiffer RJ, Kuo FC, Longtine JA, Jarolim P. Allelic variations in CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 and survival of patients receiving cyclophosphamide prior to myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Am J Hematol. 2010 Dec;85(12):967-71.

Hanley MJ, Cerundolo R, Radwanski N, Court MH. Grapefruit juice, lyophilized grapefruit juice, and powdered whole grapefruit inhibit cytochrome P450-mediated triazolam hydroxylation by beagle dog liver microsomes. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Apr;33(2):189-95.

Mosher CM, Court MH. Comparative and veterinary pharmacogenomics. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2010;199:49-77.

Manevski N, Kurkela M, Hoglund C, Mauriala T, Court MH, Yli-Kauhaluoma J, Finel M.  Glucuronidation of Psilocin and 4-Hydroxyindole by the Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Mar;38(3):386-95.

Oleson L, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Court MH. Identification of polymorphisms in the 3'-untranslated region of the human pregnane X receptor (PXR) gene associated with variability in cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) metabolism. Xenobiotica. 2010 Feb;40(2):146-62.

Court MH. Interindividual variability in hepatic drug glucuronidation: studies into the role of age, sex, enzyme inducers, and genetic polymorphism using the human liver bank as a model system.  Drug Metab Rev. 2010;42(1):202-17.

Benoit-Biancamano MO, Adam JP, Bernard O, Court MH, Leblanc MH, Caron P, Guillemette C. A pharmacogenetics study of the human glucuronosyltransferase UGT1A4. Pharmacogenet Genomics.2009 Dec;19(12):945-954. 98.

Sneitz N, Court MH, Zhang X, Laajanen K, Yee KK, Dalton P, Ding X, Finel M. Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT2A2: cDNA construction, expression, and functional characterization in comparison with UGT2A1 and UGT2A3. Pharmacogenet Genomics.2009 Dec;19(12):923-934.

Greenblatt DJ, Peters DE, Oleson LE, Harmatz JS, MacNab MW, Berkowitz N, Zinny MA, Court MH. Inhibition of oral midazolam clearance by boosting doses of ritonavir, and by 4,4-dimethyl-benziso-(2H)-selenazine (ALT-2074), an experimental catalytic mimic of glutathione oxidase. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2009 Dec;68(6):920-7.

He X, Hesse LM, Hazarika S, Masse G, Harmatz JS, Greenblatt DJ, Court MH. Evidence for oxazepam as an in vivo probe of UGT2B15: oxazepam clearance is reduced by UGT2B15 D85Y polymorphism but unaffected by UGT2B17 deletion. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2009 Nov;68(5):721-30.

Tojcic J, Benoit-Biancamano MO, Court MH, Straka RJ, Caron P, Guillemette C. In vitro glucuronidation of fenofibric acid by human UGTs and liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Nov;37(11):2236-43.

Kwara A, Lartey M, Sagoe KW, Kenu E, Court MH. CYP2B6, CYP2A6 and UGT2B7 genetic polymorphisms are predictors of efavirenz mid-dose concentration in HIV-infected patients.  AIDS. 2009 Oct 23;23(16):2101-6.

Kwara A, Lartey M, Boamah I, Rezk NL, Oliver-Commey J, Kenu E, Kashuba AD, Court MH. Interindividual Variability in Pharmacokinetics of Generic Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors in TB/HIV-Coinfected Ghanaian Patients: UGT2B7*1c Is Associated With Faster Zidovudine Clearance and Glucuronidation. J Clin Pharmacol. 2009 Sep;49(9):1079-90.

Farkas D, Volak LP, Harmatz JS, von Moltke LL, Court MH, Greenblatt DJ. Clarithromycin impairs clearance and enhances pharmacodynamic effects of trazodone but not of zolpidem. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Jun;85(6):644-50.

Kwara A, Lartey M, Sagoe KW, Rzek NL, Court MH. CYP2B6 (c.516G>T) and CYP2A6 (*9B and/or *17) polymorphisms are independent predictors of efavirenz plasma concentrations in HIV-infected patients. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2009 Apr;67(4):427-36.

Itäaho K, Court MH, Uutela P, Kostiainen R, Radominska-Pandya A, Finel M. Dopamine is a low affinity and high specificity substrate for the human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Apr;37:768-775.

Cerundolo R, Michel KE, Reisner IR, Phillips L, Goldschmidt M, Court MH, Shrestha B, Refsal K, Oliver JW, Biourge V, Shofer FS. Effects of dietary soy phytoestrogens on health, steroidogenesis, and thyroid gland function in dogs.  Am J Vet Res. 2009 Mar;70(3):353-60.

Gan L, von Moltke LL, Trepanier LA, Harmatz JS, Greenblatt DJ, Court MH. Role of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome-b5/NADH-b5 reductase in variability of CYP3A activity in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Jan;37(1):90-6.

Kummrow MS, Tseng F, Hesse L, Court M. Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine after single-dose subcutaneous administration in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2008 Dec;39(4):590-5.

Kwara A, Lartey M, Sagoe KW, Xexemeku F, Kenu E, Oliver-Commey J, Boima V, Sagoe A, Boamah I, Greenblatt DJ, Court MH. Pharmacokinetics of Efavirenz When Co-administered With Rifampin in TB/HIV Co-infected Patients: Pharmacogenetic Effect of CYP2B6 Variation.
J Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Sep;48(9):1032-40.

Oleson L, Court MH. Effect of the beta-glucuronidase inhibitor saccharolactone on glucuronidation by human tissue microsomes and recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2008 Sep;60(9):1175-82.

Court MH, Hazarika S, Krishnaswamy S, Finel M, Williams JA. Novel polymorphic human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2A3: Cloning, functional characterization of enzyme variants, comparative tissue expression, and gene induction. Mol Pharmacol. 2008 Sep;74(3):744-54.

Volak LP, Ghirmai S, Cashman JR, Court MH. Curcuminoids inhibit multiple human cytochromes P450, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and sulfotransferase enzymes, whereas piperine is a relatively selective CYP3A4 inhibitor. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008 Aug;36(8):1594-605.

Court MH. A Pharmacogenomics Primer. J Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Sep;47(9):1087-1103.

Kaivosaari S, Toivonen P, Hesse LM, Koskinen M, Court MH, Finel M.
Nicotine Glucuronidation and the Human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase UGT2B10. Mol Pharmacol. 2007 Sep;72(3):761-8.

Lascelles BD, Court MH, Hardie EM, Robertson SA. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in cats: a review. Vet Anaesth Analg. 2007 Jul;34(4):228-50.

Wolf KK, Wood SG, Allard JL, Hunt JA, Gorman N, Walton-Strong BW, Szakacs JG, Duan SX, Hao Q, Court MH, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Kostrubsky V, Jeffery EH, Wrighton SA, Gonzalez FJ, Sinclair PR, Sinclair JF.Role of CYP3A and CYP2E1 in alcohol-mediated increases in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity: comparison of wild-type and Cyp2e1(-/-) mice. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Jul;35(7):1223-31.

Farkas D, Oleson LE, Zhao Y, Harmatz JS, Zinny MA, Court MH, Greenblatt DJ. Pomegranate juice does not impair clearance of oral or intravenous midazolam, a probe for cytochrome P450-3A activity: comparison with grapefruit juice. J Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Mar;47(3):286-94.

Kurkela M, Patana AS, Mackenzie PI, Court MH, Tate CG, Hirvonen J, Goldman A, Finel M: Interactions with other human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases attenuate the consequences of the Y485D mutation on the activity and substrate affinity of UGT1A6. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2007 Feb;17(2):115-126.

He P, Court MH, Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL: Human pregnane X receptor: genetic polymorphisms, alternative mRNA splice variants, and cytochrome P450 3A metabolic activity. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Nov;46(11):1356-69.

He P, Court MH, Greenblatt DJ, VonMoltke LL: Factors influencing midazolam hydroxylation activity in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Jul;34(7):1198-207.

Hesse LM, Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL, Court MH: Ritonavir has minimal impact on the pharmacokinetic disposition of a single dose of bupropion administered to human volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 May;46(5):567-76.

Girard H, Court MH, Fortier LC, Caron P, Hao Q, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Guillemette C: The novel UGT1A9 intronic I399 polymorphism is a predictor of SN-38 glucuronidation in human liver. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Jul;34(7):1220-8.

Culm-Merdek KE, von Moltke LL, Gan L, Horan KA, Reynolds R, Harmatz JS, Court MH, Greenblatt DJ: Effect of extended exposure to grapefruit juice on cytochrome P450 3A activity in humans: Comparison with ritonavir. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Mar;79(3):243-54.

Court MH: Isoform-selective probe substrates for in vitro studies of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. Methods Enzymol. 2005;400:104-16.

Wolf KK, Wood SG, Hunt JA, Walton-Strong BW, Yasuda K, Lan L, Duan SX, Hao Q, Wrighton SA, Jeffery EH, Evans RM, Szakacs JG, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Court MH, Scheutz EG, Sinclair PR, Sinclair JF: Role of the nuclear receptor PXR in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Dec;33(12):1827-36.

Girard H, Thibaudeau J, Court MH, Fortier LC, Villeneuve L, Caron P, Hao Q, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Guillemette C: UGT1A1 polymorphisms are important determinants of dietary carcinogen detoxification in the liver. Hepatology. 2005 Aug;42(2):448-57.

Bauman JN, Goosen TC, Tugnait M, Peterkin V, Hurst SI, Menning LC, Milad M, Court MH, Williams JA: UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 is the major enzyme responsible for gemcabene glucuronidation in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Sep;33(9):1349-54.

He P, Court MH, Greenblatt DJ, Von Moltke LL: Genotype-phenotype associations of cytochrome P450 3A4 and 3A5 polymorphism with midazolam clearance in vivo. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 May;77(5):373-87.

Krishnaswamy S, Hao Q, Al-Rohaimi A, Hesse LM, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Court MH: UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A6 pharmacogenetics: 1. Identification of polymorphisms in the 5'-regulatory and exon 1 regions, and association with human liver UGT1A6 gene expression and glucuronidation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 June;313(3):1331-1339.

Krishnaswamy S, Hao Q, Al-Rohaimi A, Hesse LM, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Court MH: UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A6 pharmacogenetics: 2. Functional impact of the three most common nonsynonymous UGT1A6 polymorphisms (S7A, T181A, and R184S).
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005;313(3):1340-1346.

Girard H, Court MH, Bernard O, Fortier LC, Villeneuve L, Hao Q, Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL, Perussed L, Guillemette C: Identification of common polymorphisms in the promoter of the UGT1A9 gene: Evidence that UGT1A9 protein and activity levels are strongly genetically controlled in the liver. Pharmacogenetics. 2004 Aug;14(8):501-15.

Court MH, Hao Q, Krishnaswamy S, Bekaii-Saab T, Al-Rohaimi A, Von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ: UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B15 pharmacogenetics: UGT2B15 D85Y genotype and gender are major determinants of oxazepam glucuronidation by human liver. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Aug;310(2):656-65.

Krishnaswamy S, Hao Q, Von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Court MH: Evaluation of 5-hydroxytryptophol and other endogenous serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) analogs as substrates for UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A6. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Aug;32(8):862-9.

Mitin T, Von Moltke LL, Court MH, Greenblatt DJ: Levothyroxine up-regulates p-glycoprotein independent of the pregnane x receptor. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Aug;32(8):779-82.

Warrington JS, Court MH, Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL: Phenacetin and chlorzoxazone biotransformation in aging male Fischer 344 rats. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2004 Jun;56(6):819-25.

Court MH: Surprised with feline hyperthyroidism study recommendation. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2004 May 15;224(10):1581-2; author reply 1582-3.

Cerundolo R, Court MH, Hao Q, Michel KE: Identification and concentration of soy phytoestrogens in commercial dog foods. Am J Vet Res. 2004 May;65(5):592-6.

White HL, Freeman LM, Mahony O, Graham PA, Hao Q, Court MH: Effect of dietary soy on serum thyroid hormone concentrations in healthy adult cats. Am J Vet Res. 2004 May;65(5):586-91.

Hesse LM, He P, Krishnaswamy S, Hao Q, Hogan K, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Court MH: Pharmacogenetic determinants of interindividual variability in bupropion hydroxylation by cytochrome P450 2B6 in human liver microsomes. Pharmacogenetics. 2004 Apr;14(4):225-238.

Patki KC, Von Moltke LL, Harmatz JS, Hesse LM, Court MH, Greenblatt DJ: Effect of Age on In Vitro Triazolam Biotransformation in Male Human Liver Microsomes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Mar;308(3):874-9.

Court MH, Krishnaswamy S, Hao Q, Duan SX, Patten CJ, Von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ: Evaluation of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, morphine, and codeine as probe substrates for UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) in human liver microsomes: specificity and influence of the UGT2B7*2 polymorphism. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Sep;31(9):1125-33.

Hesse LM, Court MH: Quantitation of CYP2B6, constitutive androstane receptor, and pregnane X receptor mRNA levels. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 May;31(5):685.

Kaufman GE, Seymour RE, Bonner BB, Court MH, Karas AZ: Use of rocuronium for endotracheal intubation of North American Gulf Coast box turtles. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003 Apr 15;222(8):1111-5.

Krishnaswamy S, Duan SX, Von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Sudmeier JL, Bachovchin WW, Court MH: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) glucuronidation in vitro: assay development, human liver microsome activities and species differences. Xenobiotica 2003 Feb;33(2):169-80.

Krishnaswamy S, Duan SX, Von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Court MH: Validation of Serotonin (5-Hydroxtryptamine) as an in Vitro Substrate Probe for Human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A6.
Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Jan;31(1):133-9.

Brianceau P, Chevalier H, Karas A, Court MH, Bassage L, Kirker-Head C, Provost P, Paradis MR: Intravenous lidocaine and small-intestinal size, abdominal fluid, and outcome after colic surgery in horses. J Vet Intern Med 2002 Nov-Dec;16(6):736-41.

Court MH, Duan SX, Guillemette C, Journault K, Krishnaswamy S, Von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ: Stereoselective conjugation of oxazepam by human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs): S-oxazepam is glucuronidated by UGT2B15, while R-oxazepam is glucuronidated by UGT2B7 and UGT1A9. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Nov;30(11):1257-65.

Court MH and Freeman LM: Identification and concentration of soy isoflavones in commercial cat foods.
Am J Vet Res 2002 Feb;63(2):181-5.

Court MH: Acetaminophen UDP-glucuronosyltransferase in ferrets: species and gender differences, and sequence analysis of ferret UGT1A6. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2001 Dec;24(6):415-22.

Court MH, Duan SX, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Patten CJ, Miners JO, Mackenzie PI: Interindividual variability in acetaminophen glucuronidation by human liver microsomes: identification of relevant acetaminophen UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2001 Dec;299(3):998-1006.

Court MH, Duan SX, Hesse LM, and Greenblatt DJ: Cytochrome P450 2B6 is responsible for interindividual variability of propofol hydroxylation by human liver microsomes. Anesthesiology 94:110-118, 2001.

Venkatakrishnan K, von Moltke LL, Court MH, Harmatz JS, Crespi CL and Greenblatt DJ: Comparison between cytochrome P450 (CYP) content and relative activity approaches to scaling from cDNA-expressed CYPs to human liver microsomes: Ratios of accessory proteins as sources of discrepancies between then approaches. Drug Metabolism and Disposition.28(12):1493-1504, 2000.

Hesse LM, Venkatakrishnan K, Court MH, Duan SX, von Moltke LL, Shader RI and Greenblatt DJ: CYP2B6 mediates the in vitro hydroxylation of bupropion: Potential drug interactions with other antidepressants. Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 28(10):1176-1183, 2000.

Hay Kraus BL, Greenblatt DJ, Venkatakrishnan K and Court MH: Evidence for propofol hydroxylation by cytochrome P450 2B11 in canine liver microsomes: Breed and gender differences. Xenobiotica 30(6):575-588, 2000.

Court MH and Greenblatt DJ: Molecular genetic basis for deficient glucuronidation of acetaminophen in cats: UGT1A6 is a pseudogene, and evidence for reduced diversity of expressed hepatic UGT1A isoforms. Pharmacogenetics 10:355-369, 2000.

Perloff MD, von Moltke LL, Court MH, Kotegawa T, Shader RI and Greenblatt DJ: Midazolam and triazolam biotransformation in mouse and human liver microsomes: Relative contribution of CYP3A and CYP2C isoforms. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 292(2):618-628, 2000.

Court MH, Hay Kraus BL, Hill DW, Kind AJ and Greenblatt DJ: Propofol hydroxylation by dog liver microsomes: Assay development and dog breed differences. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 27(11):1293-1299, 1999.

Court MH: Anesthesia of the sighthound. Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice 14(1): 38-43, 1999.

Norman WM, Court MH and Greenblatt DJ: Age-related changes in the pharmacokinetics of diazepam in foals. American Journal of Veterinary Research 58:878-880, 1997.

Court MH and Greenblatt DJ: Molecular basis for deficient acetaminophen glucuronidation in cats: An interspecies comparison of enzyme kinetics in liver microsomes. Biochemical Pharmacology 53:1041-1047, 1997.

Court MH and Greenblatt DJ: Biochemical basis for deficient acetaminophen glucuronidation in cats: An interspecies comparison of enzyme constraint in liver microsomes. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 49:446-449, 1997.

Court MH, von Moltke LL, Shader RI and Greenblatt DJ: Biotransformation of chlorzoxazone by hepatic microsomes from humans and 10 other mammalian species. Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition 18(3):213-226, 1997.


Comparative and Molecular Pharmacogenomics Laboratory
Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences,
Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine

100 Grimes Way, Pullman, WA 99163, USA.
Phone: 509-335-0817; Fax: 509-335-0880
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Last update: 10 October, 2012

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Comparative and Molecular Pharmacogenomics

Laboratory Publications 1997 - present



IMPORTANT - This laboratory has recently relocated to Washington State University in Pullman, WA.